Dunning-Kruger effect, is named after psychologists David Dunning and Justin Kruger. This cognitive bias refers to the tendency for individuals with low ability or expertise in a particular domain to overestimate their competence, while those with high ability or expertise often underestimate their competence. In simpler terms, people who are not skilled in a certain area may mistakenly believe that they are quite competent, while experts may assume that tasks are easier for others than they actually are.
The Dunning-Kruger effect consists of two main components.
- Illusory Superiority
People with limited skills or knowledge tend to overestimate their abilities because they lack the expertise to recognize their own shortcomings. They are essentially too uninformed to realize the extent of their own incompetence.
2. Metacognitive Awareness
Those who are highly skilled or knowledgeable in a certain domain tend to underestimate their abilities. This is because they assume that tasks that come easily to them are similarly easy for others. They possess the metacognitive awareness to recognize their own limitations and therefore assume that everyone else has a similar level of competence.
The Dunning-Kruger effect has been observed in various contexts, from academic performance and logical reasoning to social skills and even self-awareness. It highlights the importance of self-awareness, humility, and the ability to accurately assess one’s own skills and knowledge. Overcoming the Dunning-Kruger effect requires gaining enough expertise to recognize one’s own limitations and biases.
It’s important to note that the Dunning-Kruger effect is a simplified explanation of a complex psychological phenomenon, and not all cases of overestimation or underestimation of competence can be attributed solely to this effect. I’m working on making my articles shorter and more to the point as that’s how I enjoy reading content as well. I have received several request to write more about sales strategies which I will cover in my future articles.